Divergent and Convergent Thinking: The Secret to Success

Understanding Divergent and Convergent Thinking

When it comes to leveraging the power of our minds, few concepts are as crucial as divergent thinking and convergent thinking. But what are they exactly, and how do they differ?

Divergent thinking is the process of generating many unique ideas in order to solve a problem. It’s all about thinking ‘outside the box’ and exploring all possible solutions. What if we looked at this problem from a different angle? What if we challenged the norm – how would that change our approach?

  • It is a free-flowing, non-linear, and spontaneous method.
  • It fosters originality, inventiveness, and flexibility.
  • It encourages you to draw from your personal experiences and world perception.

Imagine divergent thinking as being at the brainstorming stage of a project, where you want to come up with as many ideas as possible. It’s the power to dream, innovate, and reinvent the wheel.

Divergent thinking is an essential capacity for creativity.
– Ken Robinson

On the other hand, convergent thinking is the process of narrowing down all those possibilities to find the ‘best’ solution. How can we sift through these ideas and find which one is the most suitable? Could we test them or evaluate them against a set of criteria?

  • It involves critical thinking and decision-making.
  • It tends to be more structured and logical, following a step-by-step approach.
  • It encourages you to apply standards or past experiences to make an informed judgement.

Think of convergent thinking as the action stage. It’s where you take the various ideas generated during the divergent phase and choose the best one. It’s all about execution and results.

To put it simply, if divergent thinking is about creating options, convergent thinking is about making choices. Both are necessary, yet they serve different purposes in the problem-solving process.

How to Encourage Divergent Thinking in Collaborative Environments

In the exciting and ever-evolving world of project management, understanding the dynamics of divergent and convergent thinking is integral to fostering an environment of creativity and innovation. How do you, as a scrum master, achieve this? Well, let’s delve into divergent thinking first.

How can you Encourage Divergent Thinking?

So, the key question – how can you, as a scrum master, encourage divergent thinking? Allow me to suggest a few strategies:

  1. Create a Safe Space: Fostering a non-judgmental environment creates a culture that allows ideas to flow freely without concerns of criticism or dismissal.
  2. Brainstorming Sessions: Convene regular brainstorming sessions, encouraging quantity over quality and ensuring all ideas are captured for later assessment.
  3. Encourage Cross-Functional Collaboration: Cross-functional team members bring different perspectives, which can trigger new ideas – a distinct advantage of divergent thinking.
  4. Provide Adequate Time: The pressure of time can stifle creativity – giving your team enough time to explore ideas is crucial.

Divergent thinking paves the way for innovation – it’s where we break away from conventional views and start looking at problems and situations from a fresh perspective.

Divergent Thinking Tools for Scrum Masters

What tools can you use to facilitate divergent thinking? Below, I have outlined a couple of beneficial strategies:

Mind Mapping

Using branches and sub-branches to visually organise thoughts and ideas can encourage further idea generation.


This technique involves each team member writing their own ideas down before passing them around for others to add to. It can stifle groupthink and promote unique perspectives.

The Six Thinking Hats

Convergent thinking is the ability to bring ideas from different sources together.
– Edward de Bono

Developed by Dr. Edward de Bono, this method encourages participants to think in different ways by wearing ‘hats’ of different colours, each representing a different perspective: facts (white), feelings (red), cautious (black), positive (yellow), creative (green), and process (blue).


This sees participants asking as many questions as possible about a certain idea or topic, with the aim of expanding thought and stimulating broader, creative thinking.


SCAMPER is an innovative method used to help generate ideas, change, and improve designs. It stands for Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange. By exploring these different aspects, you can break down the boundaries of your current thinking and explore new possibilities. This is particularly useful in scrum meetings where innovation is key to solving complex problems.

Divergent thinking is key to unlocking a world of endless creativity and innovation for your agile teams. As a scrum master, by fostering an environment of unrestricted thinking and employing the right tools, you can truly harness the power of your team‘s collective mind.

Using Convergent Thinking to Narrow Down Ideas

As a Scrum Master, you are the facilitator, the mediator, and the catalyst of innovative ideas. So let’s delve into Convergent Thinking – what is it, and how can it be that secret weapon in your arsenal?

Convergent Thinking, to put it simply, is a process of finding the optimal, most suitable solution from a set of ideas generated. It includes analysing, evaluating, and – frankly –critiquing. This mode paves the way for decisiveness, resulting in swift action and efficiency. It might sound like the antithesis of creativity, but it is, in fact, an essential part of the creative process. Let me explain.

Convergent thinking is not about stifling ideas; rather, it’s about distilling them down to their most potent form.

So, how do you, as a Scrum Master, leverage this in your meetings?

Prioritisation Matrix

A time-tested technique, the prioritisation matrix – often called the ‘Eisenhower Box’ – provides a visual framework for comparing the importance and urgency of tasks. In this matrix, tasks are categorised into four quadrants: urgent and important, important but not urgent, urgent but not important, or neither urgent nor important.

UrgentNot Urgent
ImportantDo NowPlan to Do
Not ImportantDelegateEliminate or Delay

The beauty of this tool is that it allows your team to analyse and discuss each task’s positioning objectively – effectively using convergent thinking to reach a consensus on priorities.

The 5 Whys Analysis

Another technique particularly useful for problem-solving is the ‘5 Whys’ analysis. As the name suggests, it involves asking ‘why’ five times to dig into the root cause of a problem. Each answer forms the basis of the next question. This type of questioning encourages convergent thinking by focusing on a single issue and gradually narrowing down its source.

Dot Voting

One of the simplest yet highly effective techniques – dot voting. After a brainstorming session, where divergent thinking has unleashed a myriad of ideas, you ask your team to vote on them. Each team member has a certain number of ‘dots’ or votes they can allocate to their preferred ideas. The ideas with the most votes are the ones your team converge on for further exploration or execution. It’s democratic, inclusive, and convergent.

To leverage the full potential of your team, it’s important not just to generate a wide array of innovative ideas using divergent thinking but also to effectively filter and select the most suitable ones using convergent thinking. Your role as a Scrum Master is to guide your team through this delicate dance – a dance between expanding and focusing, between creativity and decisive action.

Balancing Divergent and Convergent Thinking for Optimal Results

In the quest to achieve optimal results in the shortest amount of time, balancing divergent and convergent thinking is one of your most potent tools. But what does this mean—balancing divergent and convergent thinking? It’s the art of harmoniously incorporating both thinking approaches in your problem-solving and decision-making process. It’s about acknowledging that these thought processes aren’t mutually exclusive—they often intersect and augment each other, leading to impressive outcomes.

Why Balance Is Critical

So, you may think—why not just stick to one thought process? Jump straight into analysis or, perhaps, frolic in the open meadows of blue-sky thinking?

When I apply one thought process exclusively, I am likely to miss out on the inherent advantages of the other. On the same note, losing balance by leaning too heavily towards one might equally jeopardise my objectives.

The true merits of these thinking processes reveal themselves when they are used in unison. Knowing when to diverge—to encourage ideas—and when to converge—to assess and decide—is both a science and an art.

Striking the Balance

You strike the balance not by leaning on one side but by maintaining an engaging, iterative, and respectful space that values both creative contributions and realistic analysis. Think of it as a pendulum—swaying between divergence and convergence, each feeding into and reinforcing the other in a harmonious dance.

These aren’t polar opposites, combatting for control. Rather, they are components of a dance, each accommodating the other, each bolstering the rhythms and beats of the other. A harmony, if you will, that lets your meetings become a well-orchestrated symphony of ideas.

The Dance of Divergence and Convergence

When both divergent and convergent thinking work together, a truly powerful dynamic emerges. This symbiosis – the seemingly perpetual swing between the two phases – forms a cohesive, effective progression that enhances problem-solving and decision-making.

Divergent ThinkingConvergent Thinking
Generates creative, versatile ideasAims to find practical solutions
Encourages expansive, open-ended thinkingPromotes focused, logical decision making
Values innovation and noveltyAppreciates feasibility and applicability

In the swing of things, the divergent phase provides the raw material – the myriad thoughts and ideas – that the convergent phase then refines, bringing structure and order. You, as a scrum master, facilitate this dance, ensuring a free flow of ideas, followed by their pragmatic evaluation.

In understanding and acknowledging the power of this pendulum swing, you create an environment where each person’s input is valued, where creativity blooms in the fertile soil of possibility, only then to be shaped by the robust mould of real-world application.

As a Scrum Master, knowing how to strike this balance and guide the team through it will undeniably lead to faster yet better decision-making and problem-solving. Of course, there will always be a learning curve and some trial and error involved—but every step you take brings you closer to mastering the balance between divergent and convergent thinking for optimal, swift results.

Overcoming Challenges in Implementing Divergent and Convergent Thinking

Implementing divergent and convergent thinking in meetings can be somewhat challenging. As a scrum master, you’ll encounter various hurdles, from encouraging creativity fearlessly to steering the direction of a potentially chaotic brainstorming session. So, how can we overcome these roadblocks?

The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination.
– Albert Einstein

Divergent Thinking Challenges

Divergent thinking encourages free-flowing, spontaneous creativity, which can be exciting but also daunting. Here are some common challenges and how to navigate them:

  • Intimidation by open-endedness: Some team members may feel overwhelmed by the sheer vastness of possibilities in divergent thinking. Address this by providing a clear explanation of the process and its objectives. Ensure everyone understands that it’s about producing a variety of ideas, not about getting it right straight away.
  • Unproductive Chaos: Divergent thinking can sometimes descend into unproductive chaos. Avoid this by implementing time constraints or “idea quotas”, and by guiding the team’s focus without stifering creativity.
  • Fear of judgement: Team members may hesitate to share their ideas due to fear of criticism or ridicule. Ensure to foster a safe space where diversity of thought is encouraged and respected.

Convergent Thinking Challenges

On the flip side, convergent thinking has its own unique set of challenges:

  • Team bias: During the process of refining ideas, existing biases may influence the selection process. Combat this by promoting objective decision-making, focusing on the project’s objectives and requirements.
  • Lack of participant buy-in: Some team members may struggle to support decisions if they feel their ideas were not adequately considered. Ensure transparency in the process – let everyone understand why certain ideas are selected, and others are not.
  • Analysis Paralysis: Overthinking can halt progression. Limit this by setting clear deadlines for decisions and maintaining momentum through the finalising phase.

Navigating the Grey Area

Striking the right balance between divergent and convergent thinking ultimately comes down to your prowess as a facilitator. But what happens when the line between these two modes of thinking gets blurred?

Confusion on when to switch modesClearly define and communicate the stages of your thought process. Use visual aids to highlight transitions.
Maintaining momentum between stagesKeep the team engaged by regularly summarising progress and outlining the next steps.
Preventing bias from affecting balanceEstablish ground rules that encourage impartiality and objectivity throughout the process.

Remember, the key to integrating divergent and convergent thinking successfully lies in thoroughly understanding your team’s dynamics, creating a safe and productive space for ideation, and displaying stellar facilitation skills.

Summary and Conclusion – Divergent and Convergent Thinking: Keys to Success

Creativity is thinking up new things. Innovation is doing new things.
– Theodore Levitt

After delving into the riveting world of thinking methodologies in team dynamics, we’ve truly grasped the impact of divergent and convergent thinking in the context of scrum meetings. A delicate balancing act of these two modes of thinking can indeed become your magic mantra for conducting successful team meetings.

Let’s quickly recap the salient points:

  1. The essentiality of understanding team dynamics prior to the deployment of divergent and convergent thinking strategies.
  2. Recognising the divine role of safe and productive ideation space in fostering effective brainstorming.
  3. The undeniable impact of well-honed facilitation skills in conducting successful meetings.

Note to self – the road to successful application of divergent and convergent thinking does not end at understanding their individual benefits, but rather, it begins there.

To be truly successful, you – as a scrum master – must utilise these differences as a sort of harmonious symphony of thought processes. The blending of these vast and divergent cognitive pools can lead to stellar ideas and solutions that might have otherwise passed unnoticed under single-mode thinking. Hence, it’s not an exaggeration to say that the mastery of these two cognitive styles holds the secret to “jugaad” – that art of creative problem-solving that has become synonymous with successful projects.

Divergent and convergent thinking are not just techniques but powerful assets to your tool belt as a Scrum Master. Balancing these two modes can make the difference between a run-of-the-mill meeting and a session teeming with ground-breaking ideas and innovative solutions.

Embrace the art of divergent and convergent thinking, and watch your team’s thought process bloom, thrive and lead to success.

What are you waiting for? It’s time to rewire your thinking model and amplify your team’s performance to the zenith!

Remember – It’s not just about guiding your team; it’s about leading them to their utmost potential. Time to dive deep into the ocean of cognitive fluidity and extract pearls of extraordinary solutions.

author avatar
John McFadyen Managing Partner
John McFadyen is an Executive and Enterprise Agile Coach with proven experience working on some of the UK and Europe’s largest, most complex Agile Transformations. As a Certified Scrum Trainer, John brings a wealth of experience as an Agile coach, Agile practitioner and software developer into each of the four core courses he provides. The war stories, the insights into successful Agile transformations and everything he has learned from coaching high-performance Agile teams combine to provide course delegates with a unique, compelling training experience that transforms as much as it empowers.

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